Electrotherapy is the use of electrical energy as a medical treatment. In medicine, the term electrotherapy can apply to a variety of treatments.
Electrotherapy is primarily used in physical therapy for relaxation of muscle spasms, prevention and retardation of disuse atrophy, increase of local blood circulation, muscle rehabilitation and re-education electrical muscle stimulation, maintaining and increasing range of motion, management of chronic and intractable pain, post-traumatic acute pain, post-surgical acute pain, immediate post-surgical stimulation of muscles to prevent venous thrombosis, wound healing and drug delivery.
These are some of the most commonly used currents in practice:
– TENS – short for transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the nerves. This indicates the application of electrical impulses through the skin, which suppress the transmission of pain through the neural pathway. The method is widely used because of its good tolerability, safety and easy application. 1-200Hz.TENS is used for:
– after sports injuries (injuries, sprains, strains)
– for inflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system – tendonitis, myositis, bursitis, etc.
– In neurogenic pain
– In muscle and joint pain
– Interfering current (interferential therapy) refers to the midrange currents that are widely used because of their therapeutic effect, good tolerance and deep tissue penetration. Depending on the frequency, it can be said that the lowest frequencies up to 50Hz have a stimulating effect on the muscles and from 50-100Hz are related to the analgesic effect and peripheral circulation, tissue metabolism and excretion of biologically active substances (acetylcholine, histamine). Furthermore it has anti-edema and anti-inflammatory effect. Stimulates the regeneration of peripheral nerves and accelerates bone healing.
– Low-frequency currents – for therapeutic purposes, direct and alternating low-frequency currents with frequency up to 800Hz are used. Different current parameters such as shape, frequency and modulation of impulses determine its specific effect on the body. In general, low-frequency currents are divided into three categories. Analgesic currents, muscle stimulation and impulse galvanization currents.
Analgesic currents are used in muscular, joint, and neurological pain, the most common in practice being diadynamic currents.
Muscular stimulation currents are used to strengthen weak muscles as a result of immobilization, neurological dysfunctions such as paresis, paralysis, etc.
Impulse galvanization is based on galvanic current and is used for electrophoresis, improving blood circulation and eliminating edema.